The flag of Ukraine is a banner of two equally sized horizontal bands of blue and yellow (Constitution of Ukraine, Article 20). The top represents sky and the yellow represents wheat. The combination of blue and yellow as a symbol of Ukrainian lands comes from the flag of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia used in the 12th century. As a national flag, the blue and yellow bicolour has been officially used since the 1848 Spring of Nations, when it was hoisted over the Lviv Rathaus. It was officially adopted as a state flag for the first time in 1918 by the short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic and subsequently used by the Ukrainian People's Republic. When Ukraine was part of the Soviet Union, the flag was outlawed and, before 1949, there was no official state flag until adoption of the red-azure flag of the Ukrainian SSR. The blue and yellow flag was provisionally adopted for official ceremonies in September 1991 following Ukrainian independence, before finally officially being restored on 28 January 1992 by the parliament of Ukraine.
Ukraine has celebrated Flag Day each year on 23 August since 2005.
From the point of view of psychology: the blue color symbolizes the state of calm, and the yellow color symbolizes the state of joy.
The Law of Ukraine states that the colours of Ukrainian flag are "blue and yellow", but other state bodies have determined the colours. In the table below the colours are given according to the technical specification DSTU 4512:2006:
|Pantone||Pantone Coated 2935 C||Pantone Coated Yellow 012 C|
|RAL||5019 Azure||1023 Gold (golden)|
|RGB color model||0, 87, 183||225, 215, 0|
|CMYK||100, 63, 0, 2||0, 2, 100, 0|
There is also criticism in regards to shades. There are specialists who argue that, according to rules of heraldry, the current set of colours cannot coexist. The head of the Ukrainian Heraldry Society has pointed out that it is not heraldry, but rather vexillology, that studies flags